Secret Services in Open Societies
DOI link for Secret Services in Open Societies
Secret Services in Open Societies book
This chapter surveys the manner in which other democracies-Great Britain, Germany, and Israel-have dealt with the contradiction of secret services in open societies. It evaluates their success in overcoming the problems that vex the relationship between intelligence producers and consumers. The chapter attempts to evaluate the problems of intelligence/espionage in "open societies" basically similar to the United States. It is therefore logical to begin with Great Britain, if only to see how widely attitudes, organization, and degree of success diverge. Israeli intelligence is of interest as an example of the specific opportunities and problems facing a small nation which are necessarily different from those confronting the superpowers and former imperial nations such as Great Britain and France. Comparisons between American intelligence and the secret services of other nations point up some obvious similarities. The dominant form of intelligence up to World War I was human intelligence.