The current trepidations experienced by the Soviet empire and the future of the empire boil down to the problem of nationalism, both Russian and regional. This chapter discusses that russophilism, which is really the principal issue. It focuses that the new, spontaneous phenomena, occurring from below in the Russian nationalist movement, which have developed during the period of glasnost. In the Soviet political strategy, room is made for a combination of moderate Russian nationalism, liberalism, and a disposition towards peace. In a period of crisis for the empire, to the forefront come not the moderate nationalists, but their more radical brethren: Russian chauvinists. The opinion that the sharply expressed Russian nationalist tradition was interrupted by the October Revolution and resurrected by Stalin only during the Second World War. At the end of the seventies one could still see remnants of the era, but now the dominant trend in the mindset of our colleagues and compatriots is Russian patriotism, ethnic awareness.