It has been widely observed that individuals are seldom permitted membership in organized groups—without some degree of training or socialization conducive to behavioral compliance with the prevailing values, beliefs, and norms of the group. Religious organizations, families, and family surrogates are highly established intermediate groups in most communities. The chapter discusses the church activity, the importance assigned to religion in general, and primary groups in the organization of the social and psychological behavior of black elderly persons. While the majority of the elderly in the full population reported dependence on the chapel for religious services, persons rated high in physical disability or low in physical self-maintenance were far more in evidence than other elderly chapel users. Clearly, there were a number of important differences and similarities between black elderly men and women—in church attendance, the value assigned to religion, frequency of loner behavior, and morale.