There is a persistent tendency among present-day psychologists to use consciousness as the older rationalistic psychology used the soul. It is as completely separated from the physical body by the doctrine of parallelism as the metaphysical body was separated from the metaphysical soul by their opposite qualities. In spite of much philosophizing, the field which is open to introspection is identified in current psychological practice with consciousness and the object of knowledge is placed within this field, and related to the physical world—spoken of as an external field of reality—by a parallelistic series. Objective consciousness of selves must precede subjective consciousness, and must continually condition it, if consciousness of meaning itself presupposes the selves as there. Consciousness could no longer be regarded as an Island to be studied through parallel relations with neuroses. If one recognizes language as a differentiation of gesture, the conduct of no other form can compare with that of man in the abundance of gesture.