The period between the late sixteenth century and the late seventeenth century witnessed the collapse of traditional rites and conventions because of the impact of commodified economy. New culture also radically departed from traditional culture. Against the background of the bifurcation of Neo-Confucianism, the merchant culture came into existence on the basis of reworking and integrating Neo-Confucianism. This chapter engages in a close analysis of the features and historical standings of the merchant culture. It argues that the merchant culture pushed China’s early enlightenment movement to a new level.