This chapter focuses on the local and national dimensions of water governance for food security and nutrition (FSN). It deals with the messy and complex nature of water governance which is often accompanied by high levels of contestation. Governance refers to the rules, processes of rule making and exercises of power by both state and non-state actors. How power is exercised and influences decisions is of particular importance for achieving FSN, where those experiencing the worst food insecurity are also those with the least access to power. In most countries, the distribution and availability of water – in relation to quantity, quality, seasonality or reliability – make it difficult to share water equitably amongst competing users. In areas where water demand equals or exceeds supply, the re-allocation of water between sectors tends to increase, moving water from lower to higher value water uses – generally from agriculture to cities, industry and power generation.