The ideological goal was to stop the growth of what Mao Zedong considered counter-revolutionary thought and to ensure a relationship between theory and practice. At one university, American philosopher and educator John Dewey actually received a citation that named him the 'Second Confucius'. When the Communists gained power, however, Dewey's writings were heavily criticized. During that time, frequent comparisons were made between Dewey and China's great intellectual leader Confucius. A similar thing occurred with the socialist modernization movement after the death of Mao. There is a wide-ranging debate about the continuing effect of Confucianism in China and other Asian nations. Any discussion of equality and freedom in Chinese education must begin with an analysis of the educational ideals of Confucius. The assumption of equality of moral capacities supports a belief that the best means of maintaining social order is through self-regulation as opposed to legal restraints.