The boys sat in an airless room at the Haqqania madrasa in Pakistan memorizing the Qur'an and the Hadith. These texts have formed Islamic civilization for over 1,000 years. By studying the Qur'an in the original Arabic, Haqqania's students and students studying in Islamic schools around the world are learning a language shared by almost 1 billion Moslems. Emon hopes that similar programs in other countries will make Qur'anic Arabic a truly international language. Islamic history and Islamic jurisprudence complete the studies of students at Haqqania. The course in Islamic history provides strong reminders of Western imperialism. Islamic history provides sharp contrasts between the actions of Moslem and Christian conquerors of Jerusalem. In contrast to pan-Islamism, Sati' al-Husri called for Arab nationalism and Arab unity through national education and a revitalization of the Arabic language. In the Iranian constitution, as in the constitutions of most Islamic countries, concepts of equality and freedom are limited by Islamic religious dogma.