There is little question that campaigns face an up-hill battle. As McGuire's input/output matrix notes, interventions must first attract the target audience and capture its attention. This can be difficult. For a variety of psychological reasons, Caroline Schooler and her colleagues (1998) note, "those whom a campaign most seeks to reach with health information are the least motivated to pay attention to it" (p. 414). The last thing addicted smokers, drug users, or gamblers want to do is pay attention to moralistic messages that tell them to stop doing what makes them happy.