Often we must make decisions on the basis of evidence which is less than perfect. For instance, a group of people has heights ranging from 5 ft 3 in. to 5 ft 9 in. These heights are measured with the group members standing in bare feet. When each person wears shoes his height is increased by 1 inch, so that the range of heights for the group becomes 5 ft 4 in. to 5 ft 10 in. The distributions of heights for members of the group with shoes on and with shoes off are illustrated in the histograms of Figure 1.1.