Austria emerged from the aftermath of the Second World War anxious not to let itself become politically and militarily isolated as the first Republic did following the First World War. However, until 1955, Austria was still under military occupation by the Allied forces. This heavily influenced the direction and ability to decide foreign relations for itself. The attitude of the Soviet Union was particularly influential but, despite Soviet opposition, Austria participated in the post-war American-led European Recovery Program (Marshall Plan) and in the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC).2 Austria was also able to participate in the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank and, in 1951, GATT, whilst still under military occupation. It was not, however, considered to be appropriate or politic for it to be a full member of either the UN or the Council of Europe, and the status of silent observer only was granted. Full membership of both these ‘political’ organisations was achieved only after 1955, when Austria secured full independence and entered into a commitment of permanent military neutrality, part of the price which was willingly paid in return for securing full sovereignty.3 From 1955, Austria was increasingly able to pursue its own policies for acceptable forms of integration and co-operation. It was regarded as being more integrationist than other neutral States, due in large part to the attempt not to become as isolated as the first Republic.4