The economic and political tenor of Hong Kong, the People’s Republic of China (PRC), it is perhaps not surprising that government preferred these explanations and solutions to juvenile delinquency. Communism in the PRC rendered politically unacceptable any theory that located the causes of crime in socioeconomic factors. In both societies, juvenile justice proceeded on the basis that delinquency was a product of individual pathology and moral shortcomings. Both the official statistics and the crime surveys indicated that crimes of violence consistently accounted for a far lower percentage of crime in Hong Kong than property crimes. Hong Kong’s vast network of community-based social workers, youth organisations and programmes meant that non-custodial sanctions were highly effective. A vast inter-locking mosaic of juvenile justice measures was developed, involving official and non-governmental associations loosely aligned in a comprehensive network, all concerned with disciplining juveniles.