New waves and the pax maﬁosa thesis
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New waves and the pax maﬁosa thesis book
The new types of criminal group who have challenged the prominence of syndicated crime in the US are not the only developments worthy of note in recent decades. Although they remain a signiﬁcant inﬂuence, organised crime has moved beyond the era of domination by the earlier Maﬁa-style gangsters to a more pluralised panorama of sometimes competing and sometimes collaborating groups. This is true across the world. For example, organised crime in Europe is no longer (if it were ever such) the sole province of traditional groups like the Maﬁa or localised family gangs. A more widely constituted mixture of indigenous gangs, fraudsters and criminal groups from immigrant communities provide a range of illicit enterprises, covering virtually all of the activities discussed in Chapters 3 and 4. Although the word ‘transnational’ may be problematic, such groups are certainly active internationally. Organised crime in Russia and the post-Soviet states has also expanded rapidly following the political changes of the late 1980s. It is now a subject attracting the attention of an increasing number of analysts. The growth of organised crime in the developing world has been in parallel to these new waves of organised crime in the USA, Europe, the post-Soviet states and elsewhere.