As the previous chapter should have made readily apparent, biocultural diversity research has signiﬁcant implications for both biodiversity conservation and the maintenance of cultural vitality and resilience. The case studies presented and analysed in Part 2 provide concrete evidence of the variety of integrated biocultural approaches that people and organizations around the world are developing to address the challenges of sustaining life in nature and culture. As the body of biocultural research and applications grows and becomes more visible, academic institutions, international agencies and governmental and non-governmental organizations have begun to take notice. Nevertheless, the concept and practice of biocultural diversity have yet to gain mainstream recognition and acceptance. Before turning to our case studies, it may be useful to explore some of the obstacles that have stood in the way, and to review some of the evidence and debates that have sought to move the agenda forward.