ABSTRACT

Introduction The world still continues to seek energy to satisfy its needs without giving due consideration to the consequent social, environmental, economic and security impacts. It is now clear that current approaches to energy are unsustainable. It is the responsibility of political institutions to ensure that the research and the development of technologies supporting sustainable systems be transferred to the end users. Scientists and individuals must bear the responsibility of understanding that the Earth is an integrated whole and must recognize the impact of our actions on the global environment, in order to ensure sustainability and avoid disorder in the natural life cycle. Sustainability in a regional and global context requires that demands are satisfied and risks overcome (El Bassam, 2004b) (Figure 9.1).