But there are other equally important reasons for improving end use efficiency. Conventional or fossil fuels are highly polluting. Reducing use has both environmental and health benefits. Those on fixed incomes such as the elderly are vulnerable to fuel poverty and higher efficiencies can reduce the amount spent on fuel. Improving efficiency is both a technological and social challenge. Policy makers are now focusing on ways in which different policy instruments can influence technological developments and behaviour with respect to energy efficiency. This chapter explores developments in the transport sector, the built environment and in goods, appliances and electrical motor systems.