This chapter is about the development of principles that should underlie energy policy on a global basis. They are commitments to a sustainable energy economy and to energy security. Given these concerns, a commitment to a model of ‘good practice’ must be constructed and implemented in both developed and developing countries. This inevitably demands a reflexive policy that takes into direct consideration the heterogeneous nature of energy supply technologies, and local, regional and national cultural traditions. The following discussion suggests a number of socio-economic, technical and environmental considerations for designing a sustainable energy economy for implementation in developing countries. Their implementation is illustrated by a case study of wood energy in Africa.