The EU has taken on a joint target of –8% from 1990 levels, with the understanding that this target is redistributed among the member states. The European ‘bubble’ targets are very wide-ranging around this overall European goal. Germany and the United Kingdom in particular have taken on a large share of the reductions, far greater than that of the EU as a whole. Some other parties, in particular the cohesion countries that are in a different stage in their development path, have been given growth targets.