Responses Ghemawat responds to criticism in his latest book, The Laws of Globalization and Business Applications, published in 2016. There, he defends the concept of distance, analyzing it along with his opponents’ alternative concepts and main arguments. He points out that alternative terms, such as friction, are not neutral in their implied consequences, and are not as widely used as distance. Moreover, he

This is not about a snapshot, a ‘10 percent presumption’ of integration at a moment in time. This is about trend lines and a scale of change brought on by these new technologies. Thomas Friedman, Foreign Policy

argues that the concept of distance allows for a focus on regularities, whereas studying individual differences has only limited use, due to a lack of generalizability.