You may already be asking, why do we need a separate chapter for yard waste?Until 1980, the answer would have been, we don’t. But three things happenedin the 1980s to change our attitudes about yard waste, and hence our handling of it. Landfills began to close, tipping fees began to rise, and landfill operation began to become more costly (the three phenomena are of course related). Municipal solid waste authorities thought immediately of yard waste, mostly grass clippings, which accounts for more than a fifth of U.S. MSW-more than half in Los Angeles (Miller, 1995b). Keeping yard waste out of landfills would make a significant difference in a municipality’s cost of waste disposal.