Conflict and its management are central to the resolution of disputes in the public sector, the urban and regional planning process, and planning

practice. Given that conflict and conditions of uncertainty are endemic to planning, planners may have to adopt many different roles in their practice to be effective. l Although the nature of the planner's role has been debated in the planning literature,z one area in which it is argued that planners need greater facility and skill is the practice of dispute resolution.3 Dealing with land-use, environmental, and other public policy disputes has become an important component of the planner's work.4 Because of their nature, these kinds of disputes can appear particularly resistant to resolution, or "intractable:' This chapter maps the literature on intractable environmental and public policy disputes, discusses their characteristics and potential for transformation, and draws lessons for dispute resolution research and planning practice.