This chapter explores the connections between environmental sustainability, human agency and political participation. Some key theories, concepts and examples of practical action will illustrate both the political importance and political implications of sustainable development. Issues relating to ecological citizenship, the culture of democracy, good governance and the workplace will be examined. More broadly, the relationship between personal and societal welfare and environmental sustainability will form an underlying theme of the discussions. Recognizing the increasing importance of cities and migration, the chapter concludes with a discussion on ‘the Right to the City’ and the need to combat continuing phenomena of gender inequality and violence.