This chapter explores some key issues relating to modernity, capitalism and economic growth, focusing on a range of arguments and opinions that see business and development as both part of the problem and part of the solution. It will critically consider the role of business in promoting sustainable development, addressing issues relating to the financial valuation of nature, ‘eco’ or sustainability entrepreneurship, corporate responsibility, localization and fair trade, growth and degrowth. A case study of digital media companies, carbon footprints and corporate sustainability ends the chapter.