Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) is a fruit fly pest in the Neotropical region associated with fruits of the genus Spondias spp. (Anacardiaceae) as natural hosts, where a conspicuous guild of native parasitoids has been identified. This species is also reported as the main pest in the mango (Mangifera indica L.) (Anacardiaceae) growing zones in Mexico, the Caribbean, and several countries of Central and South America, which demands the use of different control strategies to produce healthy fruits. Literature describing the association between native parasitoids and A. obliqua in Spondias fruits in Mexico and Central and South America is reviewed. We also provide results of field releases of the hymenopteran parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead), introduced in Mexico in the 1970s, and the native Utetes anastrephae (Viereck) in Spondias fruits infested with A. obliqua as a preliminary evaluation to determine the potential of native parasitoids in the control of A. obliqua. The association of A. obliqua with Spondias spp. and the guild of native parasitoids as a 268natural resource for the management of this pest are described. Our results indicate that the native parasitoid U. anastrephae has the potential to control pest populations of A. obliqua. The management of A. obliqua with parasitoids, whether native or introduced, seems to be suitable and ecologically convenient. High levels of parasitism can be achieved depending on the size, shape, and structure of Spondias fruits, thus diminishing the numbers of A. obliqua flies that later will invade mango commercial areas at a larger scale.