Taxonomic study of fruit fly immature stages is important for developing identification keys, especially of pest species, and understanding phylogeny of the Tephritidae. A review of the entomological literature revealed 78 publications describing one or more of the immature stages (egg, larvae, pupa) of the genus Anastrepha dating from 1909 to the present. Descriptions of varying quality exist for larvae of 27 species and eggs of 49 species. A table listing 74 species of Anastrepha with corresponding publications (or lack of), and annotations on their descriptive content is provided. A diagnosis of Anastrepha larvae distinguishes them from other genera. Synapomorphies to distinguish larvae of the species groups of Anastrepha have not been found, except for the curvicauda group. Taxonomic study of immature stages will advance with new collections, detailed scanning electron microscopic observation, and development of multi-entry keys.