When planning monitoring programmes, it is important that all participating institutions, companies and laboratories agree on the type and number of samples that eventually are to be analysed. This chapter focuses on cyanobacteria, cyanotoxins and parameters describing growth conditions favourable for cyanobacteria. Bertani et al. showed that monitoring strategies considerably affect the outcome of cyanobacterial monitoring. A basic understanding of limnology is a prerequisite for planning an appropriate monitoring programme for cyanobacterial occurrence in waterbodies; therefore, persons trained in limnology should be consulted in the planning phase, preferably with knowledge of the local waterbodies. Fieldwork, including site inspection, sample collection and, in most programmes, some on-site analyses, largely determines the quality of information obtained from the subsequent laboratory analyses. The frequency of site inspection and sampling also needs to be adapted to the objective of the programme. Training should include the handling of sampling and measuring devices as well as recognition of visible aspects of cyanobacterial blooms.