Investigating the effects of biological and chemical agents on aquatic organisms and, overall, marine ecosystems requires suitable model species. In fish, the most common model species used to investigate the ecotoxicity of hazardous biological and chemical agents are limited to a few species of freshwater fish while no coral-reef species is available as a model. This chapter highlights how anemonefishes can serve as relevant coral reef fish models to examine the ecotoxicology of hazardous biological and chemical agents in the marine environment. A systematic review of the most up-to-date literature has been performed to summarize the main results from relevant laboratory studies investigating ecotoxicology using anemonefish species. In addition, this chapter present how future research using anemonefish as models will enlarge the scope of ecotoxicological studies.