The main causes of decreased exercise tolerance in persons with renal failure and end-stage renal disease are anemia, changes in the cardiac function, changes in skeletal muscle function, and physical inactivity. The sport-preparticipation guidelines recommend that athletes with one functioning kidney or a solitary kidney may be allowed to participate in contact or collision sports and other similar leisure time activities after explanation of all the risks. The prevalence of proteinuria in athletes though is much higher and has been attributed to the change in renal hemo-dynamics during exercise. Prevalence of proteinuria in athletes correlates more to exercise intensity than to the duration of exercise. Protein requirement will also vary with the kind of exercise with athletes involved in resistance training requiring much more protein than those involved in aerobic training. Chronic kidney disease is generally defined based on kidney damage for more than three months associated with structural or functions abnormalities.