A greater attention was devoted to this association following the publication of a large epidemiological study that retrospectively evaluated the risk of exercise-related death in US Armed Forces recruits over a 5-year period. However, epidemiological data demonstrated an increased risk for complications such as glomerulopathy, thromboembolism, and stroke. In addition, while exercise performances are almost similar in Sickle cell anemia (SCA) carriers and non-carriers; the risk for exercise-related idiopathic sudden death is increased in the former population. SCA is a genetic disease characterized by a single nucleotide mutation that leads to the presence of sickle hemoglobin resulting from the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at the sixth position of the beta-globin chain. SCT is usually considered as an asymptomatic benign condition, compared to SCA, and reportedly affect growth, mental development. Abnormal blood rheology, impaired nitric oxidative bioavailability, enhanced oxi-dative stress, inflammation, loss of vascular reactivity are among the factors involved in the pathophysiology of vaso-occlusive like events in SCA.