Since the 1970s a global restructuring of capitalist production and investment has taken place with new corporate strategies increasing profits by moving capital from industrial centres to countries with cheap labour, circumventing unionized labour, and making use of flexible employment policies. These developments however, have not only involved a free flow of capital, but also cross-border movements of labour. Asian countries are increasingly internationalized by trade and investment interdependence, such that they are creating transnational space for the circulation not only of goods and capital, but also of people.