Introduction The chapter seeks to analyse the Africa policy of the European Community (EC) from its beginnings in the late 1950s up until the first years after September 11, 2001. Here, the term ‘EC’ is used when references are made to the period prior to 1993 and the term ‘EU’ for the period following the establishment of the European Union. When referring in general to European cooperation, both terms are used interchangeably.