Social conflict arising from socio-economic system change is neither a new phenomenon nor peculiar to the emergence of fish farming or aquaculture. The term is used in this chapter to refer loosely to activities associated with the growing and harvesting of marine organisms as a coastally based commercial food production industry.1 Social conflict is to be expected and is, in fact, a very normal human response to the introduction of a new situation and any associated loss or perceived loss of the status quo. As noted in connection with the experience of organizational and individual change,2 even when a change in situation has been sought as an improvement and is perceived as desirable, inevitably there will be a period of transition, unease and even resistance to the change – often to the point of what may, from some perspectives, be regarded as irrationality or shortsightedness. Where there is uncertainty about the nature or import of the change, a poor change management process, disagreement as to whether the change is an improvement, or where the change involves differing values, then the problem is exacerbated and can lead to various expressions of conflict, including violence, litigation (“court battles”) and other forms of political pressure.