In Canada, at both the federal and the provincial government levels, the tax rules applicable to agricultural producers under the Income Tax Act1 and other taxing statutes often apply with relatively few modifications to the aquaculture sector. The agriculture rules differ in significant aspects from those applied to other taxpayers. They also tend to be more generous. Thus, the aquaculture sector operates under regimes of taxation in Canada that may be characterized as preferential, but may also have been developed with the needs and circumstances of agriculture, not aquaculture, in mind. This chapter will examine the rationales underlying the various special rules and their application to the aquaculture sector. The policy implications of the agriculture model when it is applied to aquaculture will be addressed.