This chapter focuses on a German case study, in Esslingen, southern Germany, investigating the mobility poverty of elderly people and refugees. In an economically dynamic region such as southern Germany, with a generally highly mobile population, impediments to a person’s mobility can limit her or his opportunities and social participation. Although these groups have very different characteristics and mobility needs, both face similar challenges as regards mobility. Furthermore, this study region is the focus of attention here due to its high number of initiatives involving a very specific solution: “citizens’ buses”.