The importance of urban mobility for social inclusion is widely acknowledged. This is why improving mobility in cities has become a significant policy and development goal worldwide. However, mobility disadvantage in cities is poorly understood because often simplified assumptions are made about the relationship between spatial dynamics and social position. This chapter tries to investigate some of the phenomena that have been prevalent in European cities for many decades and their impact on personal mobility. Starting with a short comparative overview of the state of cities in Europe, this chapter will then turn towards an examination of different urban processes such as spatial segregation, urban deprivation, gentrification and centre-periphery dynamics.