From a transportation point of view, rural areas have always represented a challenge. Their low-density population, distance from built-up areas and railway stations, shrinking and ageing population, decentralised services are among the multiple factors that hinder the provision of adequate and efficient transport services. The scenario is even more complex when vulnerable groups not capable of moving independently are involved. Many innovative transport solutions are available, but almost all the time they stay within the urban context, outside of which they fail to reach the necessary critical mass. Given this scenario, this chapter analyses the mobility-related characteristics of rural areas before going deeper into the critical challenges related to (in)accessibility and social exclusion linked to persistent mobility poverty conditions.