The league had a history of poor representation of racial minorities in coaching positions, so in 2003, enacted the Rooney Rule. The findings are also applicable to the discussion of racial minorities in sport, as those who have a strong racial identity—or who are presumed to have one—are likely to face more barriers in securing a coaching or leadership role. Collectively, the research evidence suggests racial minorities face discrimination in the United States, in general, and in sport, specifically. Capital investments are relevant to the discussion of racial minorities in leadership and coaching positions. Cunningham and colleagues have shown that Whites rate racial minorities who they believe strongly identify with their race more poorly than they do their counterparts with a presumed weak racial identity. Racial minorities in the study indicated that racism limited their opportunities in the field. The pattern was especially strong among football coaches.