Fake news is news that is verifiably false, usually disseminated with an intent to deceive. Fake news is often associated with the political realm, but is not confined to politics; marketing, journalism, and science are all confronted with the notion that misinformation and facts blur, and are intentionally blurred. By discrediting traditional sources of reliable information, fake news is further used as a means of political propaganda. This introductory chapter discusses conceptual issues, presents some examples of fake news in the context of changing technological dissemination opportunities, and offers a bird’s eye view on the topics covered in this volume.