The term “social enterprise” (SE) is used in the Czech Republic; however, it has not yet been legally acknowledged. Some facts create suitable conditions for the establishment and development of social enterprises in the country, and research confirms the actual existence of social enterprises, even though a formal definition of the concept is still lacking. The background for SE development in the Czech Republic is a long and rich tradition of solidarity, mutual-help organisations, foundations and cooperatives; such organisations have indeed existed under different forms in the country for over 100 years. Social enterprises in the Czech Republic emerge from a “bottom–up” approach; they are based on citizens’ voluntary initiatives. The concept of social enterprise is mainly connected in the Czech Republic with the employment of disabled people. The term “social enterprise” is still not well-known in the Czech Republic, but there are other terms that are used in connection with that of social enterprise.