Although our book addresses colonial legacies, our collective research focuses on modern-day cycles of globalization with a concentration on three major shifts since the 1970s: the new geography of the pharmaceutical industry; the growth of South-South trade, not only in imports of final products and raw materials, but of experts and direct investments; and the appearance of global donor groups beginning in the 2000s that provide pharmaceutical treatments on a mass scale as part of the Global Health framework. From theoretical works in history and anthropology, we highlight six kinds of regulation that are at play in the Global South societies that we studied: administrative, professional, industrial, commercial, global, and popular. The histories of each of the four countries we examine—Benin, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, and Cambodia—and their regional industrial and political contexts determine the differences in how these various regulations are deployed, leading us to understand these markets as dynamic, open, and conflicting systems. The introduction ends with a detailed description of the methodology we used, which mixes ethnography, archive consultation, and questionnaires given to representative samples of the population.