Ever since medicines began to be considered not only commodities but also essential goods to protect populations, the question has been how to rationalize drug markets in the interest of public health. In this conclusion, we draw on our research and past experience to propose areas for reflection and tools for governing pharmaceutical markets that can be used by public authorities and civil society. To this end, we highlight seven points: using essential drug lists; promoting local production; crafting standards for “essential” quality; common markets and regional institutions; a dynamic balance of market offerings and professional control in pharmaceutical distribution; making room for consumers and civil society in pharmaceutical market regulation; and commons and pharmaceutical markets.