This chapter describes a reflexive approach to action research, recognising that individual/team contexts, structures and circumstances shape the way that transdisciplinary research is carried out. It builds upon earlier work and the previous two chapters to provide a detailed theoretical background to the concepts that are central to the book – the notion of transformations to sustainability (including structural, systemic and enabling approaches), transdisciplinary research, action research and coproduction; and concepts that are central to the STEPS Centre’s ‘pathways’ approach, including systems, framings and pathways. It draws on some of the documentation developed through the course of the project to explore the different relationships between the objectives, theories of transformation and action research approaches adopted by each of the hubs.