This chapter outlines the theoretical and methodological aspects of the Transformation Laboratories (‘T-Labs’) approach used throughout the project to bring together multiple researchers, stakeholders and knowledge partners in a coproduction/transdisciplinary research mode to address complex social-ecological problems. This includes a discussion of the early origins of the approach and the evolution of the ‘T-Labs’ concept throughout the course of the project. It discusses the ways in which different hubs applied the T-Lab approach alongside (or through incorporating) other transdisciplinary, participatory social science methods. The chapter will be beneficial to those wishing to apply T-Labs approaches in response to sustainability challenges in other contexts.