The notion of “contextual theology” has a long history, beginning with its gradual introduction in the “Fund for Theological Education”. Theology takes place as doing theology within contexts. A significant criterion for differentiating between, for example, contextual and constructive theology seems to lie in the valuation of how suffering, violence, and the struggle for social and environmental justice affects the interpretation of God’s work. The chapter also presents an overview on the key concepts discussed in this book. The book argues that neo-Pentecostal notions of authority represent social, economic, political, and cultural contextual forces. It uses the theories of political theorist Chantal Mouffe and the contextual theologies of Marion Grau and Joerg Rieger to probe theologically into the context of this postcolonial and economic Icelandic existential crisis. The book focuses on the notion of “Anthropocene”, which implies a shift from the Holocene to a new epoch in the earth’s history.