This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book discusses the extent to which geographical indication (GI) contributes to the democratization of existing power relations in the food system and promotes sustainable territorial development. It analyzes the potential of GI to generate local institutional resources that can empower agri-food producers and rural communities in a way that helps them to combat their dependence on the dominant agri-food regime. The book describes the importance of the process of adaptation in the implementation of GIs and argues that the abstract construct of GI needs to be translated into practical forms of adaptation. It illustrates that the original emergence of the denomination of origin labels provided an effective form of protection for producers and consumers and a way to safeguard the quality of wines and stabilize markets.