Italy can arguably be considered a particularly ripe context for the emergence of vigilante practices. On the one hand, the legitimacy of state executive agencies has been eroded by years of political crises. On the other, perceived insecurity and ethnic competition have been on the rise as a result of public debates over the so-called European migration crisis. This chapter argues that these circumstances have built on pre-existing factors delimiting the opportunities for vigilante mobilization, especially in relation to the activities of extreme right actors. It focuses on political and cultural factors, looking specifically at the discursive and legal framework regulating urban security in Italy, and at the heritage of Italian fascism and squadrismo. Empirically, the chapter presents the case of Forza Nuova, illustrating the main features of its vigilante activities in terms of organization, goals and targets, assessing the extent to which these were successful in spreading far-right values, and underlining the cultural and political factors that have limited its impact on the Italian public sphere.