With the rise in the prominence of Hindu nationalist political parties and fervour espoused by affiliated organizations in the name of Hindutva, violent incidents against minorities have increased in India. Posited within the wider context of the academic study of vigilantism, this chapter analyses Hindu vigilantism against Muslims in India, expressed most commonly in the public sphere as “cow vigilantism”. It is “Hindu vigilantism” precisely because groups of civilian Hindus attempt to forcefully police certain activities and practices of Muslims (and Dalits), who form the largest religious minority in India, by publicly condemning, shaming, and even attacking them on suspicion of beef consumption. The analyses provided in this chapter brings to the fore how the relationship between the state and civil-society creates space for vigilantism and other forms of political violence. It argues that although the state and legal framework sometimes punishes perpetrators of cow vigilantism, these perpetrators are usually affiliates or members of right-wing Hindu groups or cow protection committees with ties to the ruling establishment. Hence, the tacit approval of the state serves the purpose of enforcing a hegemonic power structure, and attempts to dominate communal order – all for the legitimacy of a particular Hindu identity.