This chapter looks at the history and recent developments of anti-immigration and far-right militias and vigilante groups in Germany. Vigilante groups and anti-immigration militias play a very minor role within the German far-right landscape. However, the call to create such organizational manifestations of parallel or anti-governmental power structures has become an important part of far-right propaganda and recruitment efforts. Such activism brings together the notion of an existential threat (e.g. brought by an “uncontrolled stream” of migrants coming to Germany) with the government’s alleged corruption and inability to protect Germany. In at least one case, a vigilante group (the Freital group) has developed into a right-wing extremist terror cell and its members were convicted as such. Nevertheless, restrictive gun legislation, a strong rule of law and more established forms of right-wing activism seem to have contributed to the relative insignificance of vigilantism in Germany. Still, the phenomenon is growing and should be watched closely in the future.