Vigilantism has a long tradition in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, dating back to the interwar Czechoslovakia. Historically, it was connected mostly with extreme right and this orientation was manifested in the first vigilante groups formed after the fall of communism. Vigilantes coming from the right-wing extremist milieu in both countries targeted predominantly Roma and ethnic minorities and some even used the legacy of the various interwar paramilitary groups. The major cause of vigilante activities in the Czech Republic and in Slovakia until recently was connected with strong anti-Gypsyism in both countries, which was gradually replaced with an anti-migration focus. In a more recent development, both Slovakia and the Czech Republic witnessed the formation of vigilante groups coming from pro-Kremlin groups involved in more pronounced paramilitary activities, often composed of former soldiers. The existence of the vigilante groups hostile to the democratic system creates a security risk, since they could be used for subversive activities by state actors or as one element of hybrid threats.