This chapter introduces the evidence-based policy making, otherwise referred to as evidence-informed policy and practice. An important knowledge broker role is emerging, of units with an understanding of the content, the evidence generation process and the ability to reach policy makers. A study of policy makers in South Africa found that while 45% of senior managers hoped to use evidence in decision making, only 9% reported being able to translate this intention into practice. The imposition of structural adjustment programmes in the 1980s and 1990s, and the adoption of New Public Management frameworks, were important influences in the development of evidence use in Africa. Evidence use in Africa during this period was primarily driven by external influences from former colonial countries. While capacity in Africa is increasing, supply continues to be dominated by international players, primarily due to donor policies and preferences from which much of the demand for evidence originates, particularly in the form of evaluations.